Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with a foot to score a goal. Unqualified, the word…
Baseball is a fun game.
Best boxing fights. Watch now for free.
Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with a foot to score a goal. Unqualified, the word…
Baseball is a fun game.
Best boxing fights. Watch now for free.
The sport is a set of physical or mental exercises practiced in the form of individual or collective games that can lead to competitions. Sport is an almost universal phenomenon in time and in human space. Ancient Greece, ancient Rome, Byzantium, medieval and modern Occident, but also pre-Columbian America or Asia, are all marked by the importance of sport. Certain periods are especially marked by prohibitions.
The term “sport” is rooted in the word old French desport which means “entertainment, physical pleasure or spirit”. Crossing the Channel, desport turns into “sport” and evacuates the general notion of leisure to focus on physical and mental activities alone. The German language also admits the term “sport” and its English definition in 1831; France uses it for the first time in 1828. The border between games and sports is not very clear. The French Chess Federation, founded in 1921, received a sports license from the Ministry of Youth and Sports in 2000, but only because it was a federation “associated” with the CNOSF. Some traditional practices are also problematic: sport or game? The question remains open. Modern sport is defined by four essential elements: The Council of Europe proposes the following definition in its “European Sport Charter” (Article 2.1) (2001): “Sport” means all forms of physical activity who, through organized or unorganized participation, aim at the expression or the improvement of the physical and psychological condition, the development of the social relations or the obtaining of results in competition of all levels.
The question of the history of sport stumbles on a debate which opposes two theses. For a current of thought, sport is a universal phenomenon, which has always existed and everywhere in very different forms. It would be a “cultural invariant” (in the words of Frédéric Baillette, teacher and director of Quasimodo magazine). This thesis is particularly supported in 1991 by the French doctor Jean-Paul Escande (The avatars of modern sport, in Ardoino, Brohm, Anthropology of sport, Critical Perspectives, 1991). This thesis is implicitly supported by those who speak of “ancient sport”, “medieval sport”, etc. American medievalist Charles Homer Haskins is the first historian to use the term “sport” in a study of the Middle Ages in his book The Latin Literature of Sport (1927).
At the beginning of the, Wolfgang Decker (Institute of Sport History of the School of Sport of Cologne) and Jean-Paul Thuillier (director of the Department of Sciences of Antiquity at the Ecole Normale Supérieure) believe that: “unlike it is often thought that sport was not born in Olympia, nor was it extinct in Attica or Peloponnese.
Egypt offers us many sporting scenes, including wrestling, from the millennium before our era, and the Romans, heirs of the Etruscans in many ways and in particular in this area, may have created modern sport, with its mass shows, its powerful clubs and its huge financial stakes. For another school of thought, sport is a phenomenon that appeared at a specific moment in time. history and in a particular context: within the social elite of industrial England. This thesis is particularly developed in 1921 by the German writer Heinz Risse (Soziologie des Sports, Berlin, 1921 and Sociologie du sport, Rennes University Press, 1991) who believes that “it is wrong to look at the past with our modes of current thinking and imagine that practices that resemble those we know can relate to this term “sport”. This thesis is supported in particular by the French historian Roger Chartier and the sociologists Norbert Elias and Pierre Bourdieu.
In 2000, the sports historian Philippe Lyotard (University of Montpellier) judges that “there is a clear cut between modern sport and ancient sport: it’s the notion of record (and therefore performance). The record and performance express a vision of the world that is profoundly different between Greeks and moderns. The culture of the body is different. For the Greeks, this culture is ritual, cultural, religious, for the modern, the body is a machine of performance. Through the example of contests in France and Spain, Sébastien Nadot advances in his thesis entitled ” Jousting holdings and no weapons in Castile, Burgundy and France, 1428-1470 ” (supported by the EHESS in 2009) that one can indeed speak of sports in the Middle Ages and that most historians confuse the notion of birth with that of democratization of sport when they evoke its appearance only from. But another way of solving the question is to forge the notion of “modern sport” to distinguish this phenomenon from other historically attested practices. In a study, a team of the UFR-Stap of the University of Burgundy estimated in 2004 that “Modern sport, (..) refers to the ideology of Coubertin, characterized by competition, performance, the training in institutional structures (federal and school) to combat idleness and the risk of psychological and physiological degeneration of man. This notion of “modern sport” is described by the American historian Allen Guttmann in From Ritual To Record, The Nature of Modern Sports (1978). Author of Sports: The First Five Millennia, Guttmann does not give up the use of the word “sport” of the
According to the broad interpretation of the notion, sport is a universal phenomenon in human time and space, and, to use a Byzantine maxim, “people without sport are sad people”. Many phenomena that appear recent, in fact, accompany the history of sport since the beginning: from professionalism to doping, from supporters to arbitration problems. Greece, Rome, Byzantium, the medieval and modern Occident, but also pre-Columbian America or Asia, are all marked by the importance of sport. Certain periods are especially marked by prohibitions concerning the sport, as it is the case in Great Britain of the Middle Ages at the Modern time. Questioned on the question, the English Justice decided in 1748 that cricket is not an illegal game. This sport, like all the others, appeared on royal edicts of prohibition regularly published by the British monarchs of.
In 1477, the practice of a “forbidden game” is thus punishable by three years in prison. Despite the ban, the practice continues, requiring a quasi-permanent reminder to the rule. Sport is one of the cornerstones of humanist education. The ancients already put on the same level physical and intellectual education. Pythagoras was a brilliant philosopher who was also wrestling champion and coach of the great champion Milon de Crotone. The Renaissance rediscovers the educational virtues of sport and, from Montaigne to Rabelais via Girolamo Mercuriale, all the authors at the base of the humanist movement integrate sport into the sport. education (rereading for example Gargantua). Every era had its “sport-king”. Antiquity was the golden age of the chariot race.
For more than a millennium, the charioteers, charioteers of the chariots, were “stars” adored by the crowds throughout the Roman Empire. The tournament, which consists of delivering a real battle of knights, but “without hate”, was the fashionable activity in the West between the and the (do not confuse the tournament and the equestrian game, very light version of the tournament ). The violence of the tournament causes its loss, especially as the game of palm is required from and up as the sport king in the West. This snowshoe game sets Paris, France and the rest of the Western world on fire. The decline of the game of palm and the arrival, or rather the return, horse races that stand out as the king’s sport. The succession of horse races was fiercely contested because the number of structured sports increases spectacularly from the end of the. Football then becomes and still today (2018) the undisputed “number one” sport on the planet. Beyond this general picture, regional differences sometimes very marked. Thus, football holds a secondary place in the countries of the former British Empire. On the other hand, he cultivates the other sports that once supported the good English society, from tennis to field hockey, rugby and cricket.
Cricket has national status in countries like India or Pakistan. Similarly, North America has given birth to several sports, ice hockey and basketball in Canada, baseball and American football in the United States, thus escaping the wave of football (called soccer in North America). In France, the sport of the end of the century is the cycling that keeps the palm until the triumph of football between the two world wars. Rugby has not managed to put an end to the domination of these two sports, hampered by a too regional implantation. ´
The power of the sports movement is considerable today, it is one of the components of globalization. An international federation like FIFA has the ability to change regulations and demand its implementation to the entire planet. Some have therefore felt that sport would offer a first model of real globalization. At the The reverse of this centralized structure is the existence of a more independent sports movement, particularly in the United States.
The NBA has special rules distinct from those of the International Basketball Federation, except for the Olympic Games for which FIBA is responsible for the events.
The American baseball illustrates this decentralization even more strongly: the two leagues that compete for the World Series trophy – American League and National League – do not follow the same rules of the game.
The following list includes the most popular sports, classified by usual categories. Other sports could complete this list. Some sports may belong to more than one category. Most of these sports have their equivalent for people with disabilities (see: Handisport).
The Olympic Games are an international competition that brings together a selection of sports disciplines. Thus, it is possible to classify sports between those who are registered at the Olympic Games, so-called “Olympic Sports” and those who are not. Those who are “Olympic Sports” can be for the Olympic Games summer or winter. Of those who are not, some are nevertheless recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
The balanced practice of a sport helps to maintain good physical and mental health. In contrast, overwork and lack of physical exercise are harmful to health.
The practice of a sport is broken down into three types of activities: sports training, competition and recovery. The training aims to train and train the practitioner so that his performances increase. To be beneficial, the training must be distributed over a succession of regular, progressive and complementary sessions to each other.
The competition aims to measure the athletes between them and reward the best. For many athletes, competition is the strongest and most enjoyable moment of sport. Finally, the practice of a sport includes phases of recovery and relaxation. The purpose of these sessions is to give the athlete’s body the time and rest necessary for
Each discipline uses specific sports skills. Balance, strength, motor skills, speed, stamina, concentration, reflex, dexterity are the best-known skills. Some disciplines use a single skill, while others use a range of skills. Apart from sports skills, there are physical determinants of athletic performance, such as strength, speed, endurance, flexibility, and coordination of motor units (intra and intermuscular + proprioception). Success in a discipline depends on the athlete’s ability to perform a specific act.
Some disciplines are to perform the gesture as accurate as possible with all the time necessary to prepare the gesture. Archery is an example of this type of discipline. Other disciplines leave little time for preparation and the athlete must perform his gesture spontaneously. Karate is an example of this type of discipline.
The practice of a sport makes work the cardiorespiratory system and different muscles. It burns calories and therefore prevents obesity (prevention of obesity). It encourages to have a correct food (food of the sportsman). It facilitates the evacuation of the nervous tension accumulated during the day (ex: stress in humans). It allows the and its limits. It facilitates the acquisition of the sense of balance, either in planned situations (gymnastic exercises), or in unforeseen situations (ball games, combat sports). It also allows the practitioner to build a work methodology, reusable for other disciplines. It is recommended to practice a medium intensity sport or, more simply, to exercise for a period of time ranging from 50 minutes to 1:30 hours if you want to have an effect on maintaining or lowering your weight, at least three times a week. Walking is the most practiced physical activity by a very large number of adults and seniors.
A large Taiwanese study published in 2011 in the medical journal The Lancet, showed that a moderate physical activity of 15 minutes per day or 90 minutes per week could reduce overall mortality by 14%, thus contributing to an increase in life expectancy. life of 3 years.
The practice of sport presents risks. The athlete can be injured by making a false movement, falling (sprain, muscle strain, breakdown, bone fracture, head trauma) or receiving a blow. It can be a victim of a cardiovascular accident (of the myocardial infarction type).
Some sports have real risks of serious bodily injury, such as head trauma or drowning, and their practice is only permitted with suitable equipment, such as: lifejacket for canoeing, helmet for descent into ATV, full harness for the ice hockey goalie. Some sports called “extreme” even have such risks of fatal accidents that their practice is prohibited. The Intensive sports activity is a source of serious injuries that can force the athlete to stop and can leave a legacy.
The practice of a sport must be adapted to the age of the practitioner and his state of fatigue. A person can be marked for life by a sport activity too intense in his childhood. An athlete may be forced to stop practicing his sport as a result of training sessions or competitions that are too hard and too frequent. Artistic gymnastics is an example of a discipline where young athletes are subjected to exercises dangerous to their health. The best prevention against accidents is to practice a sport in the rules of the art that apply to it: learning technical gestures, learning the rules of good practice and safety, regular training, warm-up prior to the violent exercises, wearing the recommended protections, appropriate nutrition before, during and after the effort, recovery between training sessions and between competitions, respect for prohibitions related to weather conditions, group practice, etc.
Sports compensation practices are widely recommended in the concept of ergomotility initiated in the workplace to fight against accidents at work. The annual medical examination at the beginning of the season makes it possible to obtain the opinion of a specialist on the capacity of an individual to practice a sport. The refusal to continue an effort that seems too difficult to bear is a gesture of safeguarding one’s health.
The sport is practiced during the school, through multiple APS, within a club or out of any club. Clubs are affiliated with federations. The clubs organize the training and put their means at the disposal of the competitions. The federations organize the competitions and enact the regulations. The vast majority of athletes are amateur sportsmen, that is to say, men and women who practice their activity without receiving any salary in return. Amateurism has its flip side with limited access to the working classes.
For certain activities and brown amateurism, that is to say the hidden remuneration or the provision of jobs of convenience to officially amateur sportsmen. Some athletes receive a salary in return for their activity. These athletes are called “professionals”. Most of them are under contract with a club.
Football in Europe and basketball in the United States are two known examples of sports practiced by professionals. Since the early 1990s and the professionalization of the Olympic Games, long bastion of amateur sport, the phenomenon of sports professionalism touches almost all disciplines.
The power of the sports movement is considerable today. An international federation like FIFA has the ability to change regulations and enforce the entire planet from a specific date. And no need for FIFA to call to order Peter, Paul or Jacques, because everyone follows the same rules. Sport thus offers a first model of real globalization. In contrast to this centralized Roman structure, there is the existence of a more independent sports movement, particularly in the United States. The NBA has special rules and no way for it to get under the thumb of the International Basketball Federation. Except for the Olympics, obviously, because it is FIBA who is in charge of the tests.
NBA players must then play according to the rules common to the rest of the world. American baseball is even more caricatural on this point, with the two leagues competing for the World Series trophy: American and National do not have the same rules of the game!
Sports competitions are forms of entertainment, but their scenario is not written in advance. During antiquity, sculpture or poetry were good vectors of sport mediatization. With the arrival of the modern media in chronological order the print media, radio, television and internet, the sport has powerful media. Thus, since 1977 there are sports TV channels whose purpose is the dissemination of sports events and information. Some are general practitioners and are involved in various sports while others specialize in a discipline. Among the titles of the sports press will be “The Team in France, Sports Illustrated in the United States or La Gazzetta dello Sport” in Italy, among others.
Sport has an important economic activity. He has created and promoted a heterogeneous form of industry that assembles media, equipment manufacturers, franchises, sports clubs, doctors, lawyers, coaches and counselors of all kinds, gardeners and even law firms.
Architecture specialized in the design of stadiums and other arenas. Some professional sportsmen also derive their income from sport. For the record, it should be noted that the number of accreditations for the media is still much higher than the accreditations of athletes at the Summer Olympics: 15,000 against 10,000. Industries and businesses in the building, textile, automotive, entertainment, media and tourism work for the sport.
The contracts of professional sportsmen, advertising sponsorships and public subsidies concern large amounts of money. Sports betting also generates significant revenues. Some sports clubs are listed companies. Sports equipment, television broadcasting rights and other derivative products are turning the economic machine. This is valid in many countries on five continents. The share of GDP devoted to sport is obviously higher in the most developed countries because of heavy investment, particularly in terms of stadiums, but also by the large share allocated to this type of expenditure by households. Excluding volunteering, the economic weight of sport in the French economy is estimated at 1.73% of GDP, or 27.4 billion euros in 2003. Household spending accounts for more than 50% of these amounts (EUR 14.2 billion in 2003), compared to EUR 7.9 billion for local authorities, 3.2 for the state and 2.2 for businesses. Among household sports expenditures in 2003, 3.7 billion were spent on sportswear and footwear, 2 on durable goods, 2.7 on other goods and 5.8 on services.
The Ministry of Youth and Sports estimates that 100,000 (58% men and 42% women) the number of employees working for the sports sector in France for some 20,000 employers. This economy is driven by the commitments of professional athletes, such as major international competitions, but also by the mass volunteering of amateur athletes such as the practice of football in Europe. It benefits from the development of sport and accelerates it. It allows professional sportspeople to work in conditions that are always better, for amateur athletes to access their leisure at increasingly attractive costs and for spectators to attend ever more spectacular and festive competitions. On the other hand, like any economic domain, the economy of sport does not escape certain abuses such as corruption or doping.
Close links exist between sport, health, economy and the environment for a long time. Links with the environment and health are more evident with “outdoor sports”, and indirect (via delayed or indirect impacts) with indoor sports or so-called “automotive” or “mechanical” sports. As such, the challenges of sustainable development of sports activities really emerged in the 1990s, in the context of the Rio Earth Summit (June 1992) and its aftermath. Pollution is important for major sporting events because it can affect the performance of athletes themselves. explains Dr. Pierre Souvet, President of the Association Santé Environnement France. Pollution of the air often invites itself to the Olympic Games.
In 1984, at the Los Angeles Olympics, Steve Ovett’s rider collapsed during the final because of respiratory problems partly related to pollution. In 2008 at the Beijing Games, the authorities reduced the traffic of cars and closed hundreds of factories. In London, there is a fear of facing the same problem. The environmental impact of “sport show” is not the only problem. Today, food supplements, energy bars, antiperspirants, energy drinks: all these products that are sold to athletes (see sports nutrition) are suspected of being toxic to the health of the athlete and the environment. These “miracle” products can contain too much salt, too many sugars, but also chemical molecules (taurine, riboflavin, pyridoxine), heavy metals (lead, aluminum) or nanoparticles. These can have deleterious effects on health and the environment.
On the occasion of the 2012 Summer Olympics, the Association Santé Environnement France, which brings together around 2,500 physicians, has published a small guide of practical advice all based on serious scientific studies.
From the 2000s, sports infrastructures that better respect the environment and landscapes; protection of natural resources and biodiversity; the reduction of waste and pollutants produced by sport; the promotion of young people, indigenous peoples, international cooperation, the democratization of sport and the role of women; the fight against discrimination and the development of women’s sport are among the IOC’s challenges and commitments to the sustainability of sport. At the global level, the Olympic Committee produced its own Agenda (“IOC Agenda 21” in 1999), followed by a Council of Europe resolution in 2000, and a French adaptation and adaptation. in 2005 (in an “Agenda 21 of French sport”).