Baseball is a grassroots sport derived from the same roots as cricket, played on grass and sand. It is played with bats to hit a pitched ball, and gloves to catch the ball. The origins of baseball are controversial, but it is indisputable that the first modern rules (the “”) were codified in the United States in 1845. The European roots of the game, long neglected by US authorities to make baseball a typically American sport, have long been known by American sports historians. The recent highlighting of a description of a match played in 1755 in Surrey (England) goes in this direction. However, it is in the United States that this sport is organized and structured. The first championships are there from 1857-1858, professionalism is allowed from 1869 and the National League is created in 1876. Thirty franchises, one of them based in Canada, in Toronto, evolve at the highest level, in the Major League Baseball (league also known under the acronym of his English name: MLB for). Since 1903, the world series pits in October the winners of the two leagues forming the MLB. Managed globally by the World Baseball and Softball Confederation (WBSC), this summer sport practiced generally from spring to autumn is very popular in North America, in some countries of Central America (Nicaragua and Panama), South America (Colombia and Venezuela), the Caribbean (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico) and Asia (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan).
The English rounders game appears as one of the ancestors of baseball. The first reference to the rounders is made in an English book by John Newbery in 1744: A Little Pretty Pocket-Book. Another baseball game is “The Poisoned Ball”, consisting of four bases, one of which is called “home,” a pitcher, a drummer, and teams of ten or twelve players. The term “baseball” (or “baseball”, as it was written until the 1920s) is already used in England at, then enters the language, literature and press in the United States during the 1820s The first appearance in the press dates back to April 25, 1823 in New York. The term encompasses several games such as rounders, town ball and round ball. These games are practiced in the northeastern United States (New York, Boston and Philadelphia) but also in the center of the country (Illinois, Ohio and Indiana mainly). However, it is the neighborhoods of Manhattan and Brooklyn that are home to New York formations like the Knickerbockers of New York, giving birth to the first modern version of the game of baseball. In 1845, the first modern rules (the “Knickerbocker Rules”) were codified by Alexander Cartwright adapting those of the rounders and the town ball. They are adopted on September 23, 1845. According to the research of the historian Charles A. Peverelly, the Knickerbockers probably began to play formally from 1842. The New York Baseball Club celebrates its second birthday on November 11, 1845 while a Brooklyn club plays on Elysean Field in 1845. A legend is built from scratch at the beginning of making Abner Doubleday the inventor of baseball in 1839 at Cooperstown. A celebration of the centenary of this event is held even in 1939. This legend is refuted from its publication by many connoisseurs of the game as Will Irvin who publishes an article on this theme in 1909 in the magazine ” Collier’s ”. Joe Williams writes on June 13, 1936 in the New York World-Telegram an article entitled The Myth of Doubleday (the myth of Doubleday). Robert W. Henderson published in 1939 work on the links between baseball and rounders and in 1947, Ball, Bat and Bishop invalidates the conclusions of the Commission Mills (1908) at the origin of this legend. June 3, 1953 | in sport,